Guinea, in its turn, is etymologically derived from the Portuguese word Guiné. The main tasks of the Maritime Element are patrol of inshore waters and transport of the Land Element. 2.3 in Marshall, A.J., and Beehler, B.M. The country, however, has no elements inscribed yet in the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists, despite having one of the widest array of intangible cultural heritage elements in the world.[108][109]. The rugged terrain—including high mountain ranges and valleys, swamps and islands—and high cost of developing infrastructure, combined with other factors (including law and order problems in some centres and the system of customary land title) makes it difficult for outside developers. Many of the world's uncontacted indigenous peoples are thought to be hiding in both Papua and West Papua. There is virtually no freehold title; the few existing freeholds are automatically converted to state lease when they are transferred between vendor and purchaser. For the single by The Future Sound of London, see, Largest cities and towns in Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, Pacific Community, Pacific Islands Forum, and the Melanesian Spearhead Group (MSG) of countries. In 1969, Indonesia, under the 1962 New York Agreement, organised a referendum named the Act of Free Choice, in which hand picked Papuan tribal elders reached a consensus to continue the union with Indonesia. The first major gas project was the PNG LNG joint venture. Papua New Guinea Time (PGT) is 10 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). This problem will be partially corrected when all of the larger Guardian-class patrol boats enter service. Seashells are no longer the currency of Papua New Guinea, as they were in some regions—sea shells were abolished as currency in 1933. Although by the late 20th century headhunting and cannibalism had been practically eradicated, in the past they were practised in many parts of the country as part of rituals related to warfare and taking in enemy spirits or powers. Mineral deposits, including gold, oil, and copper, account for 72% of export earnings. Although the rest of the Dutch East Indies achieved independence as Indonesia on 27 December 1949, the Netherlands regained control of western New Guinea. The country possesses one UNESCO World Heritage site, the Kuk Early Agricultural Site, which was inscribed in 2008. In 1526–27, Portuguese explorer Jorge de Meneses saw the western tip of New Guinea and named it ilhas dos Papuas. Prentice, M.L. The Land Element, a land force consisting of the Royal Pacific Islands Regiment, a small special forces unit, a battalion of engineers, and three other small units primarily dealing with signals and health, as well as a military academy, is concerned with defence of the nation on land. The cabinet collectively agree government policy, then the relevant minister introduces bills to Parliament, depending on which government department is responsible for implementation of a particular law. Known high-risk … With some 786,000 km2 of tropical land—less than one-half of one percent (0.5%) of the Earth's surface—New Guinea has an immense biodiversity, containing between 5 and 10 percent of the total species on the planet. [48], The culture of inter-tribal warfare and animosity between the neighboring tribes are still present in New Guinea. Research indicates that the highlands were an early and independent center of agriculture, with evidence of irrigation going back at least 10,000 years. The separation is not merely linguistic; warfare among societies was a factor in the evolution of the men's house: separate housing of groups of adult men, from the single-family houses of the women and children, for mutual protection from other tribal groups. The name is one of several toponyms sharing similar etymologies, ultimately meaning "land of the blacks" or similar meanings, in reference to the dark skin of the inhabitants. All rights and freedoms of Papua New Guinea's citizens are protected by the constitution and are outlined in its articles. 17 7694–7698. It is known to have numerous groups of uncontacted peoples, and researchers believe there are many undiscovered species of plants and animals in the interior. When the Dutch colonized this island as part of the Dutch East Indies, they called it Nieuw Guinea. The island of New Guinea, comprising the Independent State of Papua New Guinea in the east. Australia is one continent. 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