An enhanced coagulation with alum was then conducted by standard jar test to optimize coagulation pH and alum dose. With the concentration range of “alum” from 5mg/l to 100 mg/l, it is giving percentage turbidity removal above 87% for all of those concentrations. The benefits of alum are that it is widely available, is proven to reduce turbidity, and is inexpensive. The required alkalinity may be naturally present in the water or it has to be added through dosage of lime, Ca(0H)2 or sodium carbonate, Na2CO3 (also called soda ash). The pH was targeted from 3 to 8 using a fixed alum dose. Choose the sample with least turbidity and its corresponding coagulant dosage as the optimal coagulant dosage. Measure the alkal inity of the sample with the largest alum concentration. When testing samples with organic material, the used alum dose ranges from 50 mg/L to 130 mg/L. Select the optimum dosage on the basis of supernatant clarity and settleability of floc with secondary considerations to cost and sludge production. For example, a dose of 12 mg/L PACl (as 100%) was required for treatment of a coloured, low turbidity water (Otway region, Victoria) compared to similar performance obtained when using an alum dose of 55 mg/L, and The drawback of alum is that the necessary dosage varies unpredictably. Data Analysis: 1. It happen when the amount of 60ml and 100ml of Al 2 SO 4 is added. Plots of turbidity versus coagulant dose for Water A with alum, Water B with ferric chloride and Water B with alum all showed a continual decrease in turbidity with an increase in coagulant dose. Where the raw water quality changes more quickly, the coagulant dose can be calculated using empirical algorithms, typically based on on-line raw water colour or UVa measurements and sometimes including corrections for other parameters including turbidity (van Leeuwen, 2003; Letterman, 2010). Plot graph of coagulant dosage vs. color, turbidity, aluminum and TSS 7.5.2 Set 2: Variation of pH (optimum dosage of PAC) 1. alum in removing turbidity from water was obtained at pH 7 following by pH 6. Laboratory studies have shown that alum is effective at reducing turbidity and chlorine demand 3 . Resultant pH after treatment No. 3) Linear regression of turbidity and optimal dose It is not normally necessary to … 4.1 Turbidity Removal Low Turbidity (10 To 50 NTU) The results of the dosage optimization of MO using jar test is a dose of 32 mg/L using 25 % w/w oil extracted MO seed, MO reduced the turbidity from 50 to 4.3 NTU, corresponding to a turbidity removal of 91.4%. Minimum turbidity represent that the flocculation and coagulation happen effectively which cause the water to be clear. 1. Students will graph turbidity and precipitation in Larry's Creek Watershed and identify an area in the graph where turbidity is not caused by rain and is most likely cause by a nearby natural gas drilling leak. Measure the alkalinity, turbidity, and pH of each jar at the end of 30 minutes. Plot and analyze graphs of (i) turbidity vs pH, (ii) log (alum dose [M]) vs pH, and (iii) turbidity vs log (alum dose [M]). 7 shows the average results of From the results obtained in the previous sections, the optimum dose of Alum Coagulant is 20mg/l. dosage vs. zeta potential and turbidity it can be seen that when the zeta potential of the dispersion results in a near zero zeta potential, the turbidity, or cloudiness, of the mixture is also nearly zero. Diminishing improvement in turbidity removal was observed for coagulant doses above 15 mg / L alum for both 100 and 500 NTU. Alum dosage typically in the 10 – 60 PPM range depending on the results of the Jar test, Flow and turbidity measurement can be used to adjust dosage of the Alum. 550 40 35 87.5 3. Compare your plots with similar ones found in textbooks or on the internet. Record all the readings. ♦ less sludge is produced compared to alum at an equivalent dose, ♦ lower doses are required to give equivalent results to alum. The application is usually a few hundred pounds per surface acre. with poly aluminum chloride and alum showed that the efficiency of the removal of all three; turbidity, color and TSS was higher by using of poly aluminum chloride than alum, with considering that, the dosage of alum was nearly five times as poly aluminum chloride, (Ghafari et al., 2009). Find the residual turbidity of the supernatant using nephelometer. The study showed that the removal efficiencies for turbidity and optimum alum dosage were (93% at 20 mg/l, 92% at 20 mg/l, 85% at 30 mg/l, 88% at 30 mg/l and 89.3% at 30 mg/l) respectively. More typical storm water turbidity ranges are from 20 to 40 ntu. 0 10 20 30 40 50. Deter mine the pH of each t reated water sample. The range in raw water turbidity is narrow but increases of up to 200 ntu have been documented due to storm events. Repeat experiment with six new alum dosages (25 mg/L, 100, 200, 300, 500, and 1000). 7. For pump selection, it is compatible with EPDM, Viton, and all the liquid end materials. USALCO Aluminum Sulfate (Alum), is a high quality, iron-free, clear solution that meets the specifications of the American Water Works Association Standard B403-16 and complies with the requirements of NSF/ANSI/CAN 60 at a maximum dosage of 150 mg/L. Residual Aluminium with PAC/alum. The optimum alum dosage was lower (1 g L −1) which was the lowest required dosage obtained the highest turbidity removal. Determine the optimum alum dose in mg/L as Al and as alum. For example, alum reacts to form aluminium-hydroxide floc, Al(OH)3, a gelatinous precipitate. Coagulation in combination with flocculation and sedimentation Plot a graph with alum dosage along x-axis and turbidity along y-axis. 11. The plant has a 176 million gallon raw water storage facility which is seasonally dosed with a preoxidant, potassium permanganate, to control algae and associated taste… The dosage of alum, which represents least turbidity, gives Optimum Coagulant Dosage (O.C.D.). The best performance of alum in removing turbidity from water was obtained at pH 7 following by pH 6. S. Turbidity Alum PAC % PAC Consumption No. Optimum removal of turbidity (98%) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (70%) was achieved for 100 mg alum L-1 at pH 5. fig. Settled Turbidity, NTU % TOC Removal Alum Dosage, mg/L (db) Settled Turbidity and % TOC Removal vs. Alum Dosage. 10mg/L Alum Dose, 40.6, Addition of 10mg/l of alum dose removed 13.61% or turbid. Alkalinity Measurement 1. Alum is the most effective for clearing clay turbidity (general term for describing the cloudiness or muddiness of water) from a pond. In this technology, guidelines for dose calculation and application are lacking. 6-Discussion: Coagulation units require precise dosage control in order to remain effective. At an influent turbidity of 100 NTU, effluent turbidity was strongly correlated with coagulant dose at coagulant doses of 1 to 7.5 mg / L alum. This trend is a sign that sweep flocculation is the main coagulation mechanism occurring. However, optimum coagulation occurs when Based on the experiment conducted, the graph of turbidity vs alum dosage has been plotted and mark as a Figure 1. Performance vs. Alum Dosage. Table 5. Prepare a graph of residual turbidity on the left-hand ordinate and UV254 fraction remaining on the right-hand ordinate versus alum dose. #4 800 80 40 50.0 4. 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5. The coagulation efficiency of alum remained almost constant within the dosage range of 10 to 40 mg/L at pH range of 4-8 (Fig. From the graph patterns obtained in first trail of jar test, it 2. Add 50 mL of water samp le (Vs) to an erlenmeyer flask 2. S. Dose of Aluminium Concn. When testing samples with only kaolin turbidity the used alum dose ranges from 10 mg/L to 30 mg/L. Repeat the experiment of Set 1 from steps 1 to 9. In-line coagulant injection facility is an innovative application technology in restoring Eutrophic lakes. Water is drawn from the Delaware River twice daily as the tide flows upriver. In other words, results showed that alum dosage range for good coagulation was almost wide in this study. Comparative dose to bring down the turbidity to 5 NTU. 2. 6. When applying Aluminum Sulfate, it’s recommended that the pH is between 6.5 and 8.2. 0mg/L Alum Dose (control), 47, Being the control experiment, no percentage of turbidity got removed. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Turbidity variations vs Alum coagulant dosage Alum coagulant A Alum coagulant B Coagulant (mg/l) Turbidity (NTU) Figure 2: Variation of turbidity in different jars for both sample, A and B using Alum coagulant. Present all data in tabular format. Alum was once the most common coagulant used in West Virginia, but today it is being replaced by the more prevalent use of polymers. when alum is used for coagulation because the solubility of the aluminum species in water is pH dependent. Jar tests were performed with and without pH control. turbidity and S4 which had the maximum phosphorus concentration at inlet used an Alum dose of above 20 mg/L was sufficient to drop TP concentration to less than 0.025 mg/L. NTU mg/L mg/L against % Alum Consumption 1. 10. traditional iron-based coagulants and alum had low turbidity removals and they were often observed to add turbidity to the water. Mixing Alum with water about 8.2 can be toxic to fish. The river is a stable raw water source with a low average incoming turbidity of 6.0 ntu. PACl and ACH had similar percent removals for color and turbidity achieving consistent percent removals of 95% and 45%, respectively, but PACl was less effective than ACH at removing organics. If the pH of the water is between 4 and 5, alum is generally present in the form of positive ions (i.e., Al(OH)2+, Al8(OH)4+, and Al3+). ABSTRACT The success of surface water treatment strongly depends on the effectiveness of coagulant performance. GRAPH:- Plot a graph between the coagulant dose applied and turbidity of coagulated sample, by taking turbidity value on Y-axis and Alum dose on X-axis; as shown below. 1). carefully remove the supernat ant from each beaker and de termine the turbidity in each of the samples. Repeat steps 1-10 with higher dose of alum, if necessary. Analysis of zeta potential vs. coagulant dosage results are used to evaluate the effectiveness of various chemicals (typical examples are 2200 65 40 61.5 Table 6. 44 21 Alum and Lime Dosage vs. Cationic Polymer Dosage - Seattle Pilot Plant 47 22 Seattle Pilot Plant Preferred Chemical Treatments - Alum Plus Cationic Polymer 47 23 Catfloc T-l Dosages and Turbidity - Seattle Pilot Plant 48 24 573 C Dosages and Turbidity - Seattle Pilot Plant 51 25 Comparison of One vs. Observation Then determine optimum coagulant dose from the graph which corresponds to minimum turbidity. However, over-dosing was 150 35 25 71.4 2. Aluminum sulfate (Al 2 (SO 4) 3 or alum): Aluminum sulfate (commonly called alum) is used as a coagulant, causing colloidal particles to clump together and settle out of the water. With each optimal final turbidity and dose of coagulant obtained, the correspondent graph was made in order to analyze the results to determine if the data presented a linear behavior, which was determined by the use of a linear regression. It show that the minimum turbidity which is 0 NTU happen two time. Alum dose and pH control of coagulation were found to be important factors governing DOM removal. Sample ID, Turbidity (FAU) and Remarks: Tap water, 0.91, Tap water is distilled hence a minimal amount of turbidity. 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